Deutsche Telekom developed scripts in Chef and Puppet to harden servers according to well-known guidelines like bettercrypto and internal guidelines at Deutsche Telekom. More information is available at the project page of the Hardening Framework. Disclosure: I am core developer at this project.
Today we cook with knife-solo and harden a fresh copy of Ubuntu 14.04. The process of hardening a server is quite difficult and takes a lot of knowledge and experience. Even the most-experienced administrators rely on guidelines to meet the best practices.
Since we live in a cloud world by now, Dominik Richter, Patrick Meier and myself invented the
Hardening Framework. It is a set of cookbooks that help you to secure your server with well-known rules.
The following steps illustrate the hardening process of a fresh server with nothing than a base Linux system.
At first of all we need to install
gem on your workstation.
∅> sudo gem install knife-solo Fetching: method_source-0.8.2.gem (100%) Successfully installed method_source-0.8.2 Fetching: slop-3.5.0.gem (100%) Successfully installed slop-3.5.0 Fetching: coderay-1.1.0.gem (100%) Successfully installed coderay-1.1.0 Fetching: pry-0.10.0.pre2.gem (100%) Successfully installed pry-0.10.0.pre2 Fetching: chef-zero-2.0.2.gem (100%) Successfully installed chef-zero-2.0.2 Fetching: diff-lcs-1.2.5.gem (100%) Successfully installed diff-lcs-1.2.5 Fetching: highline-1.6.21.gem (100%) Successfully installed highline-1.6.21 Fetching: net-ssh-gateway-1.2.0.gem (100%) Successfully installed net-ssh-gateway-1.2.0 Fetching: net-ssh-multi-1.2.0.gem (100%) Successfully installed net-ssh-multi-1.2.0 Fetching: mime-types-1.25.1.gem (100%) Successfully installed mime-types-1.25.1 Fetching: rest-client-1.6.8.rc1.gem (100%) Successfully installed rest-client-1.6.8.rc1 Fetching: ipaddress-0.8.0.gem (100%) Successfully installed ipaddress-0.8.0 Fetching: mixlib-shellout-1.4.0.gem (100%) Successfully installed mixlib-shellout-1.4.0 Fetching: mixlib-config-2.1.0.gem (100%) Successfully installed mixlib-config-2.1.0 Fetching: mixlib-cli-1.5.0.gem (100%) Successfully installed mixlib-cli-1.5.0 Fetching: systemu-2.5.2.gem (100%) Successfully installed systemu-2.5.2 Fetching: ohai-7.0.4.gem (100%) Successfully installed ohai-7.0.4 Fetching: chef-11.14.0.alpha.2.gem (100%) Successfully installed chef-11.14.0.alpha.2 Fetching: knife-solo-0.4.1.gem (100%) Thanks for installing knife-solo! If you run into any issues please let us know at: https://github.com/matschaffer/knife-solo/issues If you are upgrading knife-solo please uninstall any old versions by running `gem clean knife-solo` to avoid any errors. See http://bit.ly/CHEF-3255 for more information on the knife bug that causes this. Successfully installed knife-solo-0.4.1 Installing ri documentation for chef-11.14.0.alpha.2 Installing ri documentation for chef-zero-2.0.2 invalid options: -SNw2 (invalid options are ignored) Installing ri documentation for coderay-1.1.0 Installing ri documentation for diff-lcs-1.2.5 Installing ri documentation for highline-1.6.21 Installing ri documentation for ipaddress-0.8.0 Installing ri documentation for knife-solo-0.4.1 Installing ri documentation for method_source-0.8.2 Installing ri documentation for mime-types-1.25.1 Installing ri documentation for mixlib-cli-1.5.0 Installing ri documentation for mixlib-config-2.1.0 Installing ri documentation for mixlib-shellout-1.4.0 Installing ri documentation for net-ssh-gateway-1.2.0 Installing ri documentation for net-ssh-multi-1.2.0 Installing ri documentation for ohai-7.0.4 Installing ri documentation for pry-0.10.0.pre2 Installing ri documentation for rest-client-1.6.8.rc1 Installing ri documentation for slop-3.5.0 Installing ri documentation for systemu-2.5.2 19 gems installed ∅>
As a next step we need to download the
hardening-kitchen. This comes with a set of hardening cookbooks and works out of the box. You’re free to extend the kitchen with your own cookbooks.
git clone https://github.com/TelekomLabs/example-chef-hardening.git cd example-chef-hardening
By now, the workstation is ready and we are able to bootstrap our server with Chef and our hardening cookbooks.
knife solo bootstrap email@example.com nodes/default.json Bootstrapping Chef... % Total % Received % Xferd Average Speed Time Time Time Current Dload Upload Total Spent Left Speed 100 15934 100 15934 0 0 21847 0 --:--:-- --:--:-- --:--:-- 21857 Downloading Chef 11.10.4 for ubuntu... downloading https://www.opscode.com/chef/metadata?v=11.10.4&prerelease=false&nightlies=false&p=ubuntu&pv=14.04&m=x86_64 to file /tmp/install.sh.30630/metadata.txt trying wget... url https://opscode-omnibus-packages.s3.amazonaws.com/ubuntu/13.04/x86_64/chef_11.10.4-1.ubuntu.13.04_amd64.deb md5 25e27eeaff3304df354e735a56005f04 sha256 98fc3ef27419ec45281306b160e5f1e736a9846ad9060a151046d5a29c49af6b yolo true downloaded metadata file looks valid... downloading https://opscode-omnibus-packages.s3.amazonaws.com/ubuntu/13.04/x86_64/chef_11.10.4-1.ubuntu.13.04_amd64.deb to file /tmp/install.sh.30630/chef_11.10.4-1.ubuntu.13.04_amd64.deb trying wget... Comparing checksum with sha256sum... WARNING: Chef-Client has not been regression tested on this O/S Distribution WARNING: Do not use this configuration for Production Applications. Use at your own risk. Installing Chef 11.10.4 installing with dpkg... dpkg: warning: downgrading chef from 11.12.4-1 to 11.10.4-1.ubuntu.13.04 (Reading database ... 62386 files and directories currently installed.) Preparing to unpack .../chef_11.10.4-1.ubuntu.13.04_amd64.deb ... Unpacking chef (11.10.4-1.ubuntu.13.04) over (11.12.4-1) ... Setting up chef (11.10.4-1.ubuntu.13.04) ... Thank you for installing Chef! Running Chef on hardening.tlabscloud.com... Installing Berkshelf cookbooks to 'cookbooks'... Installing os-hardening (1.0.1) from site: 'https://supermarket.chef.io/api/v1/cookbooks' Installing ssh-hardening (1.0.0) from site: 'https://supermarket.chef.io/api/v1/cookbooks' Using sysctl (0.3.4) Using ntp (1.6.2) Using apt (2.3.8) Using yum (2.4.4) Uploading the kitchen... Generating solo config... Running Chef... Starting Chef Client, version 11.10.4 [2014-05-14T14:53:23+00:00] WARN: unable to detect ip6address Compiling Cookbooks... [2014-05-14T14:53:23+00:00] WARN: encrypted_data_bag_Secret is set but file does not exist. Unsetting /home/ubuntu/chef-solo/cookbooks-2/chef-solo-search/libraries/search.rb:57: warning: already initialized constant PARSER_LOADED ... Chef Client finished, 10/45 resources updated in 4.206405118 seconds
In less than 5 minutes, a new server is hardened for the core system and ssh. Be aware that your server still needs some configuration in order to be production ready. For that I recommend to:
- Configure your firewall properly
- Install critical patches
- Use patch management
- Use system monitoring
More information is available at:
Commercial support for all hardening cookbooks is available via Vulcano Security